BAMS: Investigation.

Before I start my investigation into topics that pique my interest, I have been investigating the BAMS website for inspiration. Below are previous medals that stood out to me and feel inspired by:

Not a Day without a Line By: Peters, Camilla and Wood, Rob, 2005 Medium: bronze, alabaster and white ink Size: 80 x 122mm Cast by: constructed by the artists Issue: The Medal, no. 48 (Spring 2006) Edition: 20
bams 2
To Forgive the Unforgivable By: Stephen Morris, 2003 Medium: cast bronze Size: 89 x 69mm Cast by: Silas Tonks Issue: The Medal, no. 43 (2003) Edition: 32
bams 3
To Forgive the Unforgivable By: Stephen Morris, 2003 Medium: cast bronze Size: 89 x 69mm Cast by: Silas Tonks Issue: The Medal, no. 43 (2003) Edition: 32
bams 5
Past and Present £124.00 By: Rob Wood, 2001 Medium: bronze, steel and magnets Size: 78mm Cast by: the artist Edition: 40
bams 4
Past and Present £124.00 By: Rob Wood, 2001 Medium: bronze, steel and magnets Size: 78mm Cast by: the artist Edition: 40
bams 6
Alas By: Deborah Sadler, 1994 Medium: cast bronze Size: 112 x 84mm Cast by: Bronze Age Issue: The Medal, no. 25 (1994) Edition: 10

I have invested time into my summer coursework for the live brief of BAMS and I have been mapping out general ideas for themes that I would like to incorporate into my BAMS medal.


These topics are my starting line. I am going to consider each topic of interest, create a research file for each of the topics and progress from there. At the moment, I am already working on a research file for Galaxy and Sea with Voyagers. I am investigating the relationship between galaxy and sea, and the use of nocturnal instruments to navigate waters by starlight.

The Finalisation of Outcomes.

Applying titles to mount board for Exhibition.

The titles of my work have been carefully chosen and once printed out, I set to applying them to mount board, ready to exhibit my work for my deadline today at 4pm. This was the halfway stage, as I was finalising the titles and moving onto my assessment form and artist statement. All of these are now successfully and neatly applied to mount board and in place.

hitler 2

When I was investigating World War 2 headlines for my Lazertran experimentation, I thought of this visual aesthetic to incorporate into my work and started sketching out a layout for a newspaper article.

hitler 4

After experimenting with the layout, using blue tac to ‘pin’ images to the black drop, I started to play around with different titles, events and topics that were present during the 1939-1945 timeframe, primarily focusing on the middle point before WW2 ended.

field board
The Inside Layout of Display Board for Field.
field board 2
Arduino, Breadboard and Power Supply.
field board 2
Layout of Neopixels

field board 3

The arduino is set up, supplied with a power-supply and works with the interactive features as planned, written in the programming and coding. I thoroughly enjoyed setting this up, as it has finally been finalised and no longer a stress for me (the programming took large quantities of time). I am exceedingly pleased with this outcome and it has demonstrated a development of new acquired skill-sets and concepts for myself as a maker.

Finalising Outcome for Field.

moonstone 2moonstone

My coding for the arduino is finished and does work. All that’s left now is to go down to FabLab Monday morning to get LP’s help on setting the arduino back up as Aidan Taylor isn’t available to help. Once this is done, I just have to use conductive paint to trigger the capacitive sensor and trigger lighting. Then I have to mount the arduino and bread board into the underneath of the board which will be their home. Everything will be out of sight and will look sleek.

The display board, made from scratch, was painted white but I have decided to use black vinyl to put over the top for a more sleek, professional finish. The black was an incorporation to the design; as the sensory toy looks quite spaceship like, I decided to go with the theme of it and have a sort of galaxy feel to the display board. The black is also a nice contrast to the lights from the trigger sensor.

Not much is left to do once the arduinos set up to go and this won’t take no time at all to assemble everything.

Finalising Outcomes for Subject.

With my deadline nearing, I have been finalising my outcomes for Subject. Following on from my last post, the poppies have had two layers of a PVA-solution and two coats of a primary, block red.

By adding extra to my mounted hands, the body of work has become stronger. I have decided to display them this way, to visually communicate the uniform of a soldier; lined up in rows. Also, the position of the poppies represents the lined graves of soldiers who sadly lost their lives.

All of my pieces now have titles and they have been adjusted onto mount-board for exhibit. Nothing else needs finalising, as my main piece is complete and just needs reconstructing on Monday afternoon ready for deadline and my abstract, smaller piece Winds of Change is still the same. There is debate in my head on whether or not I will be pulling this piece from exhibition as it is the weaker sculpture out of my 4. I will make this decision by Monday morning.

BAMS: An Introduction.

Welcome to BAMS


British Art Medal Society

The British Art Medal Society has commissioned medals from many distinguished contemporary sculptors, including Lynn Chadwick, Nigel Hall, John Maine, Paul Neagu and Michael Sandle; gun and glass engravers such as Malcolm Appleby and Ronald Pennell; medallists and coin designers such as Ron Dutton, Robert Elderton and Michael Rizzello; jewellers such as Kevin Coates, Jacqueline Stieger and Fred Rich; the cartoonist Ronald Searle and the poet, gardener and moralist Ian Hamilton Finlay.

The medals are sold, to members only, at very little more than the cost of production and in this way the British Art Medal Society has made it possible to buy original sculpture by a wide range of contemporary artists extremely cheaply. The medals are also sold to non-members, at higher prices.

Each issue is limited to a maximum of 100, usually depending on the number sold, and is open for 18 months, after which the edition is declared. Past issues have varied from about 10 to 100.

The British Art Medal Society is non profit making, run by its members through an elected committee and linked to a charity, the British Art Medal Trust.

Besides commissioning contemporary medals it issues a journal The Medal, published twice yearly and containing illustrated articles on historical and contemporary medals, organises regular meetings and conferences, and gives advice to individuals or companies who wish to commission medals.

Giving and Receiving, the BAMS President’s Medal designed by Danuta Solowiej, has been awarded since 2009, and the Marsh Award for the Encouragement of Medallic Art since 2011. A list of recipients to date can be found here.


As a tradition for Artist, Designer; Maker students, I am being encouraged by my tutors to participate in BAMS next academic year and have been set summer coursework. I am very eager about BAMS as it is one of the elements I am most excited to dip my toes into next year in second year.

I am looking forward to the element of working in bronze, silver and pewter. I have worked in Pewter before and thoroughly enjoyed the process, but I am itching to cast in bronze and silver, which will be a new experience for me. I am excited about beginning my investigation into my concept for my piece and my personal goal over the summer is to begin sketching, designing and making.

Level 5 Field Fayre

Term 1:

Disobedient Objects

Project Leader: Paul Granjon

Disobedient Objects was the title of an exhibition in the V&A in September 2014. The exhibition examined the powerful role of objects in movements for social change. It demonstrated how political activism drives a wealth of design ingenuity and collective creativity that defy standard definitions of art and design.

This Field project will combine a reflection on the disruptive potential of objects. The notion of disobedience will be explored in two main strands:

  • as a stance against authority, where the object or its use challenges established order and power structures, facilitates expression of protest, contributes to social change or disseminates ideas.
  • as a feature of the objects, where the function and functionality is not what would be expected from the object, the gadget rebels, the connected gizmo is irreverent.

The disobedient objects in the V&A exhibition share a DIY aesthetic, they were often made in urgency on a shoestring budget, compensating low-tech quality with high inventiveness. Similarly, the objects that will be constructed during the field project will be largely made from recycled and cheap materials, with a “quick and dirty” approach.

Paul Granjon and Jon Pigott both make active objects using a combination of techniques that include programmable electronics. Although not a compulsory aspect of the project, you will be supported to use DIY electronics and open source coding using the Arduino (a non-commercial, community-driven set of technologies designed for people from all backgrounds, not only for engineers).


The sessions will mostly take place in the FabLab where you will be able to access laser cutting, 3D printing and other digital manufacturing technologies.


Overall we will encourage upcycling, recycling, lateral thinking, reverse engineering and dirty hands.

Expected Outcomes/Deliverables:

The participants in this project will work in small teams and make one or more disobedient objects that will be demonstrated at the end. First they will be asked to identify a situation that needs addressing, an imbalance that needs balancing, a voice that needs to be amplified, a force that needs to be resisted, a design thet needs to be laughed at. They will imagine, design and build an object, set, or device to put things right or break things even more using a wide range of hand-made technologies ranging from gaffer tape to programmable LEDs to crisp wrappers to servo motors.

Throughout the project an open, critical, sharing and questioning attitude will be required. Participants must be prepared to work in small groups (4 to 5 students). Technical demonstrators will provide fabrication and programming support throughout. A series of short thematic lectures will delivered by the academic staff. You will be encouraged and supported to include Arduino and open source programmable electronics in your object. You will be equally encouraged to used found and recycled/upcycled materials and adhoc construction techniques.


The Sustainable Artisan

Project Leader: Huw Williams

This project will focus on the use of sustainable materials in the design and production of  artefacts for the domestic context, this will  include furniture, lighting, storage etc

Focusing on a mixture of contemporary and traditional hand making processes students will develop a skill set, working with tools, equipment, increasing their tacit knowledge of  materials and processes and their understanding on how these impact the environment

These skills will be made relevant to professional contexts and there will be an emphasis on applying knowledge to  practice as a professional furniture designer maker. This project would be supported by studio visit to practitioners and also investigate existing markets for such skills and products.

Also available through the medium of Welsh

Expected Outcomes/Deliverables:

Working prototypes and artefacts of a professional quality.


Term 2:

Art & The Conscious Mind

Project Leader: Professor Rob Pepperell

This project will consider the links between the nature of art and the human mind, in particular the conscious mind. Using examples from several creative fields, the course will investigate some key debates in contemporary science and philosophy about the function and operation of the mind, the place of consciousness in the world, and how creative practitioners can contribute to these debates. Key topics to be covered include perception (especially visual perception), awareness and self-awareness, the location of consciousness, how reality is understood and represented, and how artists and designers have modified and manipulated our minds.


The project will be delivered through a series of presentations and workshops, and will include practical activities designed to elicit creative responses to the issues being discussed. Practical activities will include workshops on mindfulness and Eastern theories of consciousness, immersive technologies and artworks, and how design objects can affect our states of mind, including through humour.


Expected Outcomes:

  • A wide understanding of contemporary and historical debates about the human mind
  • A deep understanding of how artists have interpreted and affected the human mind
  • Practical experience of different conscious states
  • Practical work based on the students’ interests and the ideas presented


The Grand British Tour

Project Leader: Duncan Ayscough

The Grand British Tour is an opportunity to visit some of the the most renowned museums of Britain and work with their collections to create your own cabinet of curiosities – a Wunderkammer.


The project will be launched with a series of lectures, seminars and workshops exploring ways to engage creatively with museum collections.


This will be followed by a series of museum visits you will generate research, ideas and inspiration for further development. While documenting a range of artefacts, you will be invited to focus on three from each collection that have particular significance for you.


Possible museum visits may include, Pitt Rivers, Ashmolean, Welcomme Trust, Courtauld Institute, Wallace Institute, Fitzwilliam, Kettles Yard, Hanley Museum Stoke-on-Trent, Yorkshire Sculpture Park, York City Art Gallery, Manchester City Art Gallery, and Whitworth Gallery Manchester.


The work will be developed through group tutorials and directed towards subject specific project development.

Expected Outcomes/Deliverables:

  • A body of research work pre and post visits.
  • A reflective blog.
  • Clearly articulated project proposal related to subject area appropriately evidenced in presentation.



Important information! This project involves a study visit which will be of an additional cost to students:

• Location: Locations around the UK
• Duration: approximately 2 x 2/3 nights
• Estimated cost to students: £100 (+ daily subsistence)

NB. the cost above is an estimate only and may be subject to change.


These Level 5 modules are the ones that primarily interested me from the Field Fayre. I found this beneficial as I got to speak directly to the people who ran each module and feel I can make a fully educated decision.

My main choices are:
Term 1 – Disobedient Objects
Term 2 – Art and the Conscious Mind

My secondary choices are:
Term 1: The Sustainable Artisan
Term 2: The Grand British Tour

I am thoroughly interested in my main choices, because for Term 1, I want a more hands-on project that involves Arduinos and a practical, physical outcome. Also, this module looked a great deal of fun and after dabbling this year into the basics of Arduinos and Capacitive Sensors, I am intrigued to branch out into this area a bit more.

For Term 2, I am very interested in a more theoretical, philosophical and physics based module. I feel this choice would be highly beneficial, as it would help develop critical, theoretical, spiritual, philosophical and physics based way of thinking, and would help support Dissertation Proposal and Constellation.

My secondary choices do not appeal to me as much as my first choices, but, it is always good to have a backup plan as there’s no guarantee a module I wanted would be picked up for next year if numbers are low.

Adolf Hitler.

Dictator Adolf Hitler was born in Braunau am Inn, Austria, on April 20, 1889, and was the fourth of six children born to Alois Hitler and Klara Polzl. As a child, Hitler clashed frequently with his emotionally harsh father, who also didn’t approve of his son’s later interest in fine art as a career. Following the death of his younger brother, Edmund, in 1900, Hitler became detached and introverted. He also showed an early interest in German nationalism, rejecting the authority of Austria-Hungary. This nationalism would become the motivating force of Hitler’s life.

Alois died suddenly in 1903. Two years later, Adolf’s mother allowed her son to drop out of school. After her death in December 1907, he moved to Vienna and worked as a casual laborer and watercolor painter. Hitler applied to the Academy of Fine Arts twice and was rejected both times. Lacking money outside of an orphan’s pension and funds from selling postcards, he stayed in homeless shelters. Hitler later pointed to these years as the time when he first cultivated his anti-Semitism, though there is some debate about this account.

In 1913, Hitler relocated to Munich. At the outbreak of World War I, he applied to serve in the German army. He was accepted in August 1914, though he was still an Austrian citizen. Although Hitler spent much of his time away from the front lines (with some reports that his recollections of his time on the field were generally exaggerated), he was present at a number of significant battles and was wounded at the Somme. He was decorated for bravery, receiving the Iron Cross First Class and the Black Wound Badge.

Hitler became embittered over the collapse of the war effort. The experience reinforced his passionate German patriotism, and he was shocked by Germany’s surrender in 1918. Like other German nationalists, he purportedly believed that the German army had been betrayed by civilian leaders and Marxists. He found the Treaty of Versailles degrading, particularly the demilitarization of the Rhineland and the stipulation that Germany accept responsibility for starting the war.

Party Leadership and Imprisonment

After World War I, Hitler returned to Munich and continued to work for the military as an intelligence officer. While monitoring the activities of the German Workers’ Party (DAP), Hitler adopted many of the anti-Semitic, nationalist and anti-Marxist ideas of party founder Anton Drexler. Hitler joined the DAP in September 1919.

To increase its appeal, the DAP changed its name to the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP), often abbreviated to Nazi. Hitler personally designed the party banner, appropriating the swastika symbol and placing it in a white circle on a red background. He soon gained notoriety for his vitriolic speeches against the Treaty of Versailles, rival politicians, Marxists and Jews. In 1921, Hitler replaced Drexler as NSDAP chairman.

Hitler’s fervid beer-hall speeches began attracting regular audiences. Early followers included army captain Ernst Rohm, the head of the Nazi paramilitary organization the Sturmabteilung (SA), which protected meetings and frequently attacked political opponents.

On November 8, 1923, Hitler and the SA stormed a public meeting featuring Bavarian prime minister Gustav Kahr at a large beer hall in Munich. Hitler announced that the national revolution had begun and declared the formation of a new government. After a short struggle that led to several deaths, the coup known as the “Beer Hall Putsch” failed.

Hitler was arrested and tried for high treason. He served nine months in prison, during which time he dictated most of the first volume of Mein Kampf (“My Struggle”) to his deputy, Rudolf Hess. A work of propaganda and falsehoods, the book laid out Hitler’s plans for transforming German society into one based on race.

Rise to Power

With millions unemployed, the Great Depression in Germany provided a political opportunity for Hitler. Germans were ambivalent to the parliamentary republic and increasingly open to extremist options. In 1932, Hitler ran against 84-year-old Paul von Hindenburg for the presidency. Hitler came in second in both rounds of the election, garnering more than 36 percent of the vote in the final count. The results established Hitler as a strong force in German politics. Hindenburg reluctantly agreed to appoint Hitler as chancellor in order to promote political balance.

Hitler used his position as chancellor to form a de facto legal dictatorship. The Reichstag Fire Decree, announced after a suspicious fire at parliament, suspended basic rights and allowed detention without trial. Hitler also engineered the passage of the Enabling Act, which gave his cabinet full legislative powers for a period of four years and allowed for deviations from the constitution.

Having achieved full control over the legislative and executive branches of government, Hitler and his political allies embarked on a systematic suppression of the remaining political opposition. By the end of June, the other parties had been intimidated into disbanding. On July 14, 1933, Hitler’s Nazi Party was declared the only legal political party in Germany. In October of that year, Hitler ordered Germany’s withdrawal from the League of Nations.

Military opposition was also punished. The demands of the SA for more political and military power led to the Night of the Long Knives, which took place from June 30 to July 2, 1934. Rohm, a perceived rival, and other SA leaders, along with a number of Hitler’s political enemies, were rounded up and shot.

The day before Hindenburg’s death in August 1934, the cabinet had enacted a law abolishing the office of president, combining its powers with those of the chancellor. Hitler thus became head of state as well as head of government and was formally named leader and chancellor. As head of state, Hitler became supreme commander of the armed forces.

The Rise of Anti-Semitism

From 1933 until the start of the war in 1939, Hitler and his Nazi regime instituted hundreds of laws and regulations to restrict and exclude Jews in society. The Anti-Semitic laws were issued throughout all levels of government, making good on the Nazis’ pledge to persecute Jews if the party came to power. On April 1, 1933, Hitler implemented a national boycott of Jewish businesses, followed by the introduction of the ”Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service” of April 7, 1933, which was one of the first laws to persecute Jews by excluding them from state service. This was a Nazi implementation of the Aryan Paragraph, a clause calling for the exclusion of Jews and non-Aryans from organizations, employment and eventually all aspects of public life.

In April 1933, additional legislation furthered the persecution of Jews including laws restricting the number of Jewish students at schools and universities, limiting Jews working in medical and legal professions, and revoking the licenses of Jewish tax consultants. In April 1933, the Main Office for Press and Propaganda of the German Student Union called for “Action Against the Un-German Spirit,” prompting students to burn more than 25,000 “Un-German” books, ushering in an era of censorship and Nazi propaganda. In 1934, Jewish actors were forbidden from performing in film or in the theater.

On September 15, 1935, the Reichstag introduced the Nuremberg Laws which defined a “Jew” as anyone with three or four grandparents who were Jewish, regardless of whether the person considered themselves Jewish or observed the religion. The Nuremberg Laws also set forth the “Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour,” which banned marriage between non-Jewish and Jewish Germans; and the Reich Citizenship Law, which deprived “non-Aryans” of the benefits of German citizenship.

Hitler’s eugenic policies also targeted children with physical and developmental disabilities, and later authorized a euthanasia program for disabled adults. His regime also persecuted homosexuals, arresting an estimated 100,000 men from 1933 to 1945, some of whom were imprisoned or sent to concentration camps. At the camps, gay prisoners were forced to wear pink triangles to identify their homosexuality, which Nazis considered a crime and a disease.

Hitler also promoted anti-smoking campaigns across the country. These campaigns stemmed from Hitler’s self-imposed dietary restrictions, which included abstinence from alcohol and meat. Fueled by fanaticism over what he believed was a superior Aryan race, he encouraged Germans to keep their bodies pure of any intoxicating or unclean substance.

In 1936, Hitler and his regime muted their Anti-Semitic rhetoric and actions when Germany hosted the Winter and Summer Olympic Games, in an effort to avoid criticism on the world stage and a negative impact on tourism. However, after the Olympics, the Nazi persecution of Jews intensified with the continued “Aryanization” of Jewish businesses, which involved the firing of Jewish workers and takeover by non-Jewish owners.

World War II & The Holocaust

In 1938, Hitler, along with several other European leaders, signed the Munich Agreement. The treaty ceded the Sudetenland districts to Germany, reversing part of the Versailles Treaty. As a result of the summit, Hitler was named Time magazine’s Man of the Year for 1938. This diplomatic win only whetted his appetite for a renewed German dominance.

The Nazis continued to segregate Jews from German society, banning them from public school, universities, theaters, sports events and “Aryan” zones. Jewish doctors were also barred from treating “Aryan” patients. Jews were required to carry identity cards and, in the fall of 1938, Jewish people had to have their passports stamped with a “J.”

On November 9 and 10, 1938, a wave of violent anti-Jewish pogroms swept Germany, Austria and parts of the Sudetenland. Nazis destroyed synagogues, vandalized Jewish homes, schools and businesses, and close to 100 Jews were murdered. Called Kristallnacht, the “Night of Crystal” or the “Night of Broken Glass,” referring to the broken glass left in the wake of the destruction, the pogroms escalated the Nazi persecution of Jews to another level of brutality and violence. Almost 30,000 Jewish men were arrested and sent to concentration camps, signaling more horrors to come.

On September 1, 1939, Germany invaded Poland. In response, Britain and France declared war on Germany two days later. Between 1939 and 1945, Nazis and their collaborators were responsible for the deaths of at least 1 million noncombatants, including about six million Jews, representing two-thirds of the Jewish population in Europe. As part of Hitler’s “Final Solution,” the genocide enacted by the regime would come to be known as the Holocaust.

Deaths and mass executions took place in concentration and extermination camps such as Auschwitz-Birkenau, Bergen-Belsen, Dachau and Treblinka, among many others. Other persecuted groups included Poles, communists, homosexuals, Jehovah’s Witnesses and trade unionists. Prisoners were used as forced laborers for SS construction projects, and in some instances they were forced to build and expand concentration camps. They were subject to starvation, torture and horrific brutalities, including having to endure gruesome and painful medical experiments. Hitler probably never visited the concentration camps and did not speak publicly about the mass killings, but Germans documented the atrocities committed at the camps on paper and in films.

Hitler escalated his military activities in 1940, invading Norway, Denmark, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Belgium. By July, Hitler ordered bombing raids on the United Kingdom, with the goal of invasion. Germany’s formal alliance with Japan and Italy, known collectively as the Axis powers, was agreed upon toward the end of September to deter the United States from supporting and protecting the British.

On June 22, 1941, Hitler violated the 1939 non-aggression pact with Joseph Stalin, sending a massive army of German troops into the Soviet Union. The invading force seized a huge area of Russia before Hitler temporarily halted the invasion and diverted forces to encircle Leningrad and Kiev. The pause allowed the Red Army to regroup and conduct a counteroffensive attack, and the German advance was stopped outside Moscow in December 1941.

On December 7, Japan attacked Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. Honoring the alliance with Japan, Hitler was now at war against the Allied powers, a coalition that included Britain, the world’s largest empire, led by Prime Minister Winston Churchill; the United States, the world’s greatest financial power, led by President Franklin D. Roosevelt; and the Soviet Union, which had the world’s largest army, commanded by Stalin.

Though initially hoping that he could play the Allies off of one another, Hitler’s military judgment became increasingly erratic, and the Axis powers could not sustain his aggressive and expansive war. In late 1942, German forces failed to seize the Suez Canal, leading to the loss of German control over North Africa. The German army also suffered defeats at the Battle of Stalingrad (1942-43), seen as a turning point in the war, and the Battle of Kursk (1943). On June 6, 1944, on what would come to be known as D-Day, the Western Allied armies landed in northern France. As a result of these significant setbacks, many German officers concluded that defeat was inevitable and that Hitler’s continued rule would result in the destruction of the country. Organized efforts to assassinate the dictator gained traction, and opponents came close in 1944 with the notorious July Plot, though it ultimately proved unsuccessful.

Death and Legacy

By early 1945, Hitler realized that Germany was going to lose the war. The Soviets had driven the German army back into Western Europe and the Allies were advancing into Germany from the west. At midnight, going into April 29, 1945, Hitler married his girlfriend, Eva Braun, in a small civil ceremony in his Berlin bunker. Around this time, Hitler was informed of the execution of Italian dictator Benito Mussolini. Afraid of falling into the hands of enemy troops, Hitler and Braun committed suicide the day after their wedding, on April 30, 1945. Their bodies were carried to a bombed-out area outside of the Reich Chancellery, where they were burned.

Berlin fell on May 2, 1945. Five days later, on May 7, 1945, Germany surrendered unconditionally to the Allies.

Hitler’s political programs had brought about a world war, leaving behind a devastated and impoverished Eastern and Central Europe, including Germany. His policies inflicted human suffering on an unprecedented scale and resulted in the death of tens of millions of people, including more than 20 million in the Soviet Union and six million Jews in Europe. Hitler’s defeat marked the end of Germany’s dominance in European history and the defeat of fascism. A new ideological global conflict, the Cold War, emerged in the aftermath of the devastating violence of World War II.


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