The Finalisation of Outcomes.

Applying titles to mount board for Exhibition.

The titles of my work have been carefully chosen and once printed out, I set to applying them to mount board, ready to exhibit my work for my deadline today at 4pm. This was the halfway stage, as I was finalising the titles and moving onto my assessment form and artist statement. All of these are now successfully and neatly applied to mount board and in place.

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When I was investigating World War 2 headlines for my Lazertran experimentation, I thought of this visual aesthetic to incorporate into my work and started sketching out a layout for a newspaper article.

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After experimenting with the layout, using blue tac to ‘pin’ images to the black drop, I started to play around with different titles, events and topics that were present during the 1939-1945 timeframe, primarily focusing on the middle point before WW2 ended.

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The Inside Layout of Display Board for Field.
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Arduino, Breadboard and Power Supply.
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Layout of Neopixels

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The arduino is set up, supplied with a power-supply and works with the interactive features as planned, written in the programming and coding. I thoroughly enjoyed setting this up, as it has finally been finalised and no longer a stress for me (the programming took large quantities of time). I am exceedingly pleased with this outcome and it has demonstrated a development of new acquired skill-sets and concepts for myself as a maker.

Finalising Outcomes for Subject.

With my deadline nearing, I have been finalising my outcomes for Subject. Following on from my last post, the poppies have had two layers of a PVA-solution and two coats of a primary, block red.

By adding extra to my mounted hands, the body of work has become stronger. I have decided to display them this way, to visually communicate the uniform of a soldier; lined up in rows. Also, the position of the poppies represents the lined graves of soldiers who sadly lost their lives.

All of my pieces now have titles and they have been adjusted onto mount-board for exhibit. Nothing else needs finalising, as my main piece is complete and just needs reconstructing on Monday afternoon ready for deadline and my abstract, smaller piece Winds of Change is still the same. There is debate in my head on whether or not I will be pulling this piece from exhibition as it is the weaker sculpture out of my 4. I will make this decision by Monday morning.

Adolf Hitler.

Dictator Adolf Hitler was born in Braunau am Inn, Austria, on April 20, 1889, and was the fourth of six children born to Alois Hitler and Klara Polzl. As a child, Hitler clashed frequently with his emotionally harsh father, who also didn’t approve of his son’s later interest in fine art as a career. Following the death of his younger brother, Edmund, in 1900, Hitler became detached and introverted. He also showed an early interest in German nationalism, rejecting the authority of Austria-Hungary. This nationalism would become the motivating force of Hitler’s life.

Alois died suddenly in 1903. Two years later, Adolf’s mother allowed her son to drop out of school. After her death in December 1907, he moved to Vienna and worked as a casual laborer and watercolor painter. Hitler applied to the Academy of Fine Arts twice and was rejected both times. Lacking money outside of an orphan’s pension and funds from selling postcards, he stayed in homeless shelters. Hitler later pointed to these years as the time when he first cultivated his anti-Semitism, though there is some debate about this account.

In 1913, Hitler relocated to Munich. At the outbreak of World War I, he applied to serve in the German army. He was accepted in August 1914, though he was still an Austrian citizen. Although Hitler spent much of his time away from the front lines (with some reports that his recollections of his time on the field were generally exaggerated), he was present at a number of significant battles and was wounded at the Somme. He was decorated for bravery, receiving the Iron Cross First Class and the Black Wound Badge.

Hitler became embittered over the collapse of the war effort. The experience reinforced his passionate German patriotism, and he was shocked by Germany’s surrender in 1918. Like other German nationalists, he purportedly believed that the German army had been betrayed by civilian leaders and Marxists. He found the Treaty of Versailles degrading, particularly the demilitarization of the Rhineland and the stipulation that Germany accept responsibility for starting the war.

Party Leadership and Imprisonment

After World War I, Hitler returned to Munich and continued to work for the military as an intelligence officer. While monitoring the activities of the German Workers’ Party (DAP), Hitler adopted many of the anti-Semitic, nationalist and anti-Marxist ideas of party founder Anton Drexler. Hitler joined the DAP in September 1919.

To increase its appeal, the DAP changed its name to the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP), often abbreviated to Nazi. Hitler personally designed the party banner, appropriating the swastika symbol and placing it in a white circle on a red background. He soon gained notoriety for his vitriolic speeches against the Treaty of Versailles, rival politicians, Marxists and Jews. In 1921, Hitler replaced Drexler as NSDAP chairman.

Hitler’s fervid beer-hall speeches began attracting regular audiences. Early followers included army captain Ernst Rohm, the head of the Nazi paramilitary organization the Sturmabteilung (SA), which protected meetings and frequently attacked political opponents.

On November 8, 1923, Hitler and the SA stormed a public meeting featuring Bavarian prime minister Gustav Kahr at a large beer hall in Munich. Hitler announced that the national revolution had begun and declared the formation of a new government. After a short struggle that led to several deaths, the coup known as the “Beer Hall Putsch” failed.

Hitler was arrested and tried for high treason. He served nine months in prison, during which time he dictated most of the first volume of Mein Kampf (“My Struggle”) to his deputy, Rudolf Hess. A work of propaganda and falsehoods, the book laid out Hitler’s plans for transforming German society into one based on race.

Rise to Power

With millions unemployed, the Great Depression in Germany provided a political opportunity for Hitler. Germans were ambivalent to the parliamentary republic and increasingly open to extremist options. In 1932, Hitler ran against 84-year-old Paul von Hindenburg for the presidency. Hitler came in second in both rounds of the election, garnering more than 36 percent of the vote in the final count. The results established Hitler as a strong force in German politics. Hindenburg reluctantly agreed to appoint Hitler as chancellor in order to promote political balance.

Hitler used his position as chancellor to form a de facto legal dictatorship. The Reichstag Fire Decree, announced after a suspicious fire at parliament, suspended basic rights and allowed detention without trial. Hitler also engineered the passage of the Enabling Act, which gave his cabinet full legislative powers for a period of four years and allowed for deviations from the constitution.

Having achieved full control over the legislative and executive branches of government, Hitler and his political allies embarked on a systematic suppression of the remaining political opposition. By the end of June, the other parties had been intimidated into disbanding. On July 14, 1933, Hitler’s Nazi Party was declared the only legal political party in Germany. In October of that year, Hitler ordered Germany’s withdrawal from the League of Nations.

Military opposition was also punished. The demands of the SA for more political and military power led to the Night of the Long Knives, which took place from June 30 to July 2, 1934. Rohm, a perceived rival, and other SA leaders, along with a number of Hitler’s political enemies, were rounded up and shot.

The day before Hindenburg’s death in August 1934, the cabinet had enacted a law abolishing the office of president, combining its powers with those of the chancellor. Hitler thus became head of state as well as head of government and was formally named leader and chancellor. As head of state, Hitler became supreme commander of the armed forces.

The Rise of Anti-Semitism

From 1933 until the start of the war in 1939, Hitler and his Nazi regime instituted hundreds of laws and regulations to restrict and exclude Jews in society. The Anti-Semitic laws were issued throughout all levels of government, making good on the Nazis’ pledge to persecute Jews if the party came to power. On April 1, 1933, Hitler implemented a national boycott of Jewish businesses, followed by the introduction of the ”Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service” of April 7, 1933, which was one of the first laws to persecute Jews by excluding them from state service. This was a Nazi implementation of the Aryan Paragraph, a clause calling for the exclusion of Jews and non-Aryans from organizations, employment and eventually all aspects of public life.

In April 1933, additional legislation furthered the persecution of Jews including laws restricting the number of Jewish students at schools and universities, limiting Jews working in medical and legal professions, and revoking the licenses of Jewish tax consultants. In April 1933, the Main Office for Press and Propaganda of the German Student Union called for “Action Against the Un-German Spirit,” prompting students to burn more than 25,000 “Un-German” books, ushering in an era of censorship and Nazi propaganda. In 1934, Jewish actors were forbidden from performing in film or in the theater.

On September 15, 1935, the Reichstag introduced the Nuremberg Laws which defined a “Jew” as anyone with three or four grandparents who were Jewish, regardless of whether the person considered themselves Jewish or observed the religion. The Nuremberg Laws also set forth the “Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour,” which banned marriage between non-Jewish and Jewish Germans; and the Reich Citizenship Law, which deprived “non-Aryans” of the benefits of German citizenship.

Hitler’s eugenic policies also targeted children with physical and developmental disabilities, and later authorized a euthanasia program for disabled adults. His regime also persecuted homosexuals, arresting an estimated 100,000 men from 1933 to 1945, some of whom were imprisoned or sent to concentration camps. At the camps, gay prisoners were forced to wear pink triangles to identify their homosexuality, which Nazis considered a crime and a disease.

Hitler also promoted anti-smoking campaigns across the country. These campaigns stemmed from Hitler’s self-imposed dietary restrictions, which included abstinence from alcohol and meat. Fueled by fanaticism over what he believed was a superior Aryan race, he encouraged Germans to keep their bodies pure of any intoxicating or unclean substance.

In 1936, Hitler and his regime muted their Anti-Semitic rhetoric and actions when Germany hosted the Winter and Summer Olympic Games, in an effort to avoid criticism on the world stage and a negative impact on tourism. However, after the Olympics, the Nazi persecution of Jews intensified with the continued “Aryanization” of Jewish businesses, which involved the firing of Jewish workers and takeover by non-Jewish owners.

World War II & The Holocaust

In 1938, Hitler, along with several other European leaders, signed the Munich Agreement. The treaty ceded the Sudetenland districts to Germany, reversing part of the Versailles Treaty. As a result of the summit, Hitler was named Time magazine’s Man of the Year for 1938. This diplomatic win only whetted his appetite for a renewed German dominance.

The Nazis continued to segregate Jews from German society, banning them from public school, universities, theaters, sports events and “Aryan” zones. Jewish doctors were also barred from treating “Aryan” patients. Jews were required to carry identity cards and, in the fall of 1938, Jewish people had to have their passports stamped with a “J.”

On November 9 and 10, 1938, a wave of violent anti-Jewish pogroms swept Germany, Austria and parts of the Sudetenland. Nazis destroyed synagogues, vandalized Jewish homes, schools and businesses, and close to 100 Jews were murdered. Called Kristallnacht, the “Night of Crystal” or the “Night of Broken Glass,” referring to the broken glass left in the wake of the destruction, the pogroms escalated the Nazi persecution of Jews to another level of brutality and violence. Almost 30,000 Jewish men were arrested and sent to concentration camps, signaling more horrors to come.

On September 1, 1939, Germany invaded Poland. In response, Britain and France declared war on Germany two days later. Between 1939 and 1945, Nazis and their collaborators were responsible for the deaths of at least 1 million noncombatants, including about six million Jews, representing two-thirds of the Jewish population in Europe. As part of Hitler’s “Final Solution,” the genocide enacted by the regime would come to be known as the Holocaust.

Deaths and mass executions took place in concentration and extermination camps such as Auschwitz-Birkenau, Bergen-Belsen, Dachau and Treblinka, among many others. Other persecuted groups included Poles, communists, homosexuals, Jehovah’s Witnesses and trade unionists. Prisoners were used as forced laborers for SS construction projects, and in some instances they were forced to build and expand concentration camps. They were subject to starvation, torture and horrific brutalities, including having to endure gruesome and painful medical experiments. Hitler probably never visited the concentration camps and did not speak publicly about the mass killings, but Germans documented the atrocities committed at the camps on paper and in films.

Hitler escalated his military activities in 1940, invading Norway, Denmark, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Belgium. By July, Hitler ordered bombing raids on the United Kingdom, with the goal of invasion. Germany’s formal alliance with Japan and Italy, known collectively as the Axis powers, was agreed upon toward the end of September to deter the United States from supporting and protecting the British.

On June 22, 1941, Hitler violated the 1939 non-aggression pact with Joseph Stalin, sending a massive army of German troops into the Soviet Union. The invading force seized a huge area of Russia before Hitler temporarily halted the invasion and diverted forces to encircle Leningrad and Kiev. The pause allowed the Red Army to regroup and conduct a counteroffensive attack, and the German advance was stopped outside Moscow in December 1941.

On December 7, Japan attacked Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. Honoring the alliance with Japan, Hitler was now at war against the Allied powers, a coalition that included Britain, the world’s largest empire, led by Prime Minister Winston Churchill; the United States, the world’s greatest financial power, led by President Franklin D. Roosevelt; and the Soviet Union, which had the world’s largest army, commanded by Stalin.

Though initially hoping that he could play the Allies off of one another, Hitler’s military judgment became increasingly erratic, and the Axis powers could not sustain his aggressive and expansive war. In late 1942, German forces failed to seize the Suez Canal, leading to the loss of German control over North Africa. The German army also suffered defeats at the Battle of Stalingrad (1942-43), seen as a turning point in the war, and the Battle of Kursk (1943). On June 6, 1944, on what would come to be known as D-Day, the Western Allied armies landed in northern France. As a result of these significant setbacks, many German officers concluded that defeat was inevitable and that Hitler’s continued rule would result in the destruction of the country. Organized efforts to assassinate the dictator gained traction, and opponents came close in 1944 with the notorious July Plot, though it ultimately proved unsuccessful.

Death and Legacy

By early 1945, Hitler realized that Germany was going to lose the war. The Soviets had driven the German army back into Western Europe and the Allies were advancing into Germany from the west. At midnight, going into April 29, 1945, Hitler married his girlfriend, Eva Braun, in a small civil ceremony in his Berlin bunker. Around this time, Hitler was informed of the execution of Italian dictator Benito Mussolini. Afraid of falling into the hands of enemy troops, Hitler and Braun committed suicide the day after their wedding, on April 30, 1945. Their bodies were carried to a bombed-out area outside of the Reich Chancellery, where they were burned.

Berlin fell on May 2, 1945. Five days later, on May 7, 1945, Germany surrendered unconditionally to the Allies.

Hitler’s political programs had brought about a world war, leaving behind a devastated and impoverished Eastern and Central Europe, including Germany. His policies inflicted human suffering on an unprecedented scale and resulted in the death of tens of millions of people, including more than 20 million in the Soviet Union and six million Jews in Europe. Hitler’s defeat marked the end of Germany’s dominance in European history and the defeat of fascism. A new ideological global conflict, the Cold War, emerged in the aftermath of the devastating violence of World War II.


Source Here:

Finalising Outcomes.

Following on from the Easter break, I am now finalising my outcomes for both Field and Subject for my deadline, that is in 2 weeks time. (6th June).

With time still available to me, I decided to improve one of my outcomes in Subject – the mounted hands. I painted the boards white and still felt like they needed some extra pizzazz! I have done extensive research into the Poppy Appeal and the connection between Flanders and the war, so started wondering if I could make plaster of Paris poppies for the bases of my mounted hands.

(Boards after I painted them white.)

Finding a sculptural frame for the size of poppies in mind, I wanted to create was the next task. At first, I tried pouring plaster that was in a setting state directly onto wooden boards and slowly incorporating copper wire into some of the setting pieces.

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However, I found this wasn’t quite the effect I had wanted and they were not as 3D as I had hoped for. I have set these aside and kept them around, as I have no doubt I will find another use for them. Moving on from this, I then tried using cut and shaped card to pour plaster directly into; that way, the card would act as more of a support structure for the poppies.

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These instead, looked more like fried eggs, and I was back to square one. Despite them not working out, I too, have kept these around. I felt a little dejected by the lack of an outcome I had desired, and then decided to try use objects with small, curved lips to see if that would have any effect. I also tried pouring directly onto the board again to see if there was a technique to it.

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After sometime of trying to figure out how to sculpt plaster poppies that were more 3D, I started looking at chicken wire but I felt the gaps between each hole was too far apart that the plaster would seep through. I did find a small piece of chicken wire around the studio and then went to ask Martin if he had anything similar, but with smaller gaps. This is when Martin handed me two small sheets of aluminium wire, which was a lot more bendy and flexible – perfect for sculpting!


I cut up small amounts of the aluminium mesh and with masking tape, created small meshed circles. Once I had about 6 or so of them, I went down to the plaster room to further experiment with this idea, feeling a bit more hopeful than the dejection I felt from the other ways failing.

I was very content with the outcome of these and once I removed all the excess mesh and clay, I started to smooth them off, using the grater in the plaster room. Once this was done, I took them back upstairs to my studio space to air out and dry.

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Now I have let them dry all over the weekend, I will no doubt be creating a PVA solution for them and painting them red and black to represent poppies. I feel they give the mounted hands a bit extra added to them, rather than just hands on a metal rod, mounted on plain boards. They look more finalised and polished than before and I am quite pleased with this. I enjoy being able to stack them or arrange in a variety of ways, as there’s endless possibilities and different arrangements I could try. It also breaks the metal rod away from the base when you make direct eye contact with it.

For Field, my prototype is nearly complete. I have had another two sessions with Aidan and will be meeting with him again this week, with hopes that everything is nearly programmed and accomplished. I have loaned out an Arduino from the university for my exhibition and picked this up from Mal Bennett in N-block on Thursday morning.


Now with one of these in my possession, I was finally able to move on with the display board for my prototype. Having the physical arduino itself was important, because I needed an approximate size to chart out where everything was going to go.

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I also started to sketch out the prototype itself, where it was going to go and what section needed holes drilled into. By mapping out where I desired things to go, made my life a lot easier when it came to actually physically drilling the holes in. I just had to line the drill up with my map and proceed.

The ‘x’s are where the drill was marked to go through and the right is all mental reminders for myself when it comes to installing the wires and arduino. I am hopeful that everything will be complete by this week, or the latest, start of next week, as that way, I have about a week to do ‘damage control’ and extra tweaking, as well as create my sketchbook racks.

Pre-Easter Round Up.

I am going to discuss a breakdown of my outcomes for Subject and Field. I will discuss briefly how I have got to the point where I am at with my projects, and outline what still needs to be completed before deadlines.

Untitled (TBC). 

A two-part series of plaster cast hands, mounted on wooden boards and thick metal rods. They were made by pouring plaster into marigold rubber gloves. Once set, I sanded them down to remove the imprint of gloves. Drilled individual holes into the bottom of each cast and attached them to metal rods. The wooden boards were drilled into and they were fitted.

The next and final phase for this two-part series is lazertran process. I will image transfer newspaper clippings of headlines from the war-torn 1940s.


Winds of Change. 

An abstract sculptural piece. The concept is sails in the wind. Casted entirely out of plaster, Winds of Change was made by pouring plaster into solid square slabs, where one slab was sawn into right angular triangles. They were drilled into and are fitted together with small metal connectors, however they can still be moved and dismantled. This piece is a finished outcome.


The Camps.

Developed by walking around Llandaff Cathedral, imprinting clay into walls and trees, The Camps was then casted in plaster. The terracotta clay seeped its colour into the plaster, which gave it its earthen texture. Connected by visible metal rods, This signifies the connection between each concentration camp.

I am going to be using the lazertran process to finalise this piece. The 3D reliefs will be dismounted from the board, in order for me to image transfer the map of Poland. The plaster reliefs will then be placed back on the board. Once this is complete, this outcome will be finished.

memorial hands

Untitled (TBC).

This sculptural piece is influenced by memorial sculpture. Casted entirely out of plaster, the plaster base was casted in the same manner as Winds of Change and connected in the same manner. Through alginate casting of two people’s hands, I was able to take the hand casts into plaster. The only differentiation from my other outcomes, is this one will incorporate light.

This piece is near finalisation; the only thing left to complete is fixing the lights to the metal connectors, so they are unable to be taken, removed or altered.

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Untitled (TBC).

A work still in progress, this prototype is designed to fixed with light and an interactive touchpad. The arduino and battery will be hidden by a wooden hut that is still to be developed, and all the wiring will be hidden underneath the wooden board. The lights will be fixed underneath, with specific holes that will be drilled. There will be a slight dip in the top of the board, so my prototype can be placed into the dip to prevent it from being able to slip or slide around the board.

There is still some considerable work to be done on this. The only things left to do is build the hut for the arduino to live in, program my lights and fixture all the wirings. Once this is done, I can see this being a sleek way to display my prototype.

CSAD Reception Exhibition.

I always sit in reception of CSAD for a little while in the mornings, before attending to whatever work needs completing and today I was excited to see another exhibition in the exhibition space of reception. I also was excited because two of the exhibition pieces were war-related and I thought this beneficial contextualisation for my subject practice and my outcomes that are loosely inspired by the effects and aftermath of the Holocaust.
It’s also a coincidence that the exhibition was put up today, on the day Theresa May signs Article 50 which initiates brexit, considering the notion of so much strife and refugees from the effects of wars etc.

csad exhibition 2csad exhibition 3csad exhibition 6

This was an interesting read and I spent a good 10-15 minutes viewing the exhibition of work. I also couldn’t help but notice how Hitler had a massive head on a tiny body, almost like one of those bobble toys you would often get as a child.

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I couldn’t find any artist name or information for this exhibition piece, but I thought this was moving and powerful. It’s beautifully painted and the message is emotionally provocative. Soldiers hiding in a barn to save their lives, or soldiers awaiting enemies to ambush them. This piece’s perspective can be seen in many different lights. Survivors, waiting for rescue. Emergency hideout for medical reasons. I love this because this piece enables you to have your own opinion on what you think is actually happening at that moment inside the piece and that’s what I love about art.

Wales National War Memorial – Alexandra Gardens, Cardiff.

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I went for a walk yesterday with my friend and we went through Alexandra Gardens. I was pleasantly surprised to discover that there was a war memorial central of the Gardens and was also a beautiful fountain. I took photographs of the Wales National War Memorial as I felt it would be beneficial contextualisation for my project in Subject.

I am looking at displaying my outcomes for Subject as memorials, so by investigating war memorials around and in Cardiff is good contextualisation for my project outcomes.