Contextualisation: BSI (British Standards Institution) Health and Safety rules and regulations for non-electrical components.

Non-electrical components

Components which are not in themselves electrical equipment do not fall within the scope of the regulations. However, the regulations do require electrical equipment to be safe and therefore the components in it should not render it unsafe.

What are your responsibilities as an electrical equipment manufacturer?

The manufacturer is the person – whether established in the European Economic Area (EEA) or not – who is primarily responsible for designing and manufacturing equipment so that it complies with the safety requirements of the Electrical Equipment (Safety) Regulations 1994.

All electrical equipment must be:

  • safe – there should be minimum risk that the electrical equipment will cause death or personal injury to any person or domestic animal, or damage to property
  • constructed in accordance with good engineering practice in relation to safety matters
  • designed and constructed to ensure that it protects against electric shock through protective earthing, double insulation or equivalent
  • designed and constructed to conform with the principal elements of the safety objectives, which are in Schedule 3 of the regulations

Electrical equipment which is constructed to meet the safety provisions of one of the following, in an accepted hierarchy of standards and requirements, will be presumed to comply with the safety requirements of the regulations:

  • harmonised – agreed by the national standards bodies of all the EU member states
  • international – where no harmonised standard exists, a standard published by the International Electrotechnical Commission, which includes the relevant safety objectives of the regulations, details of which have also been published by the European Commission in its official journal
  • national – a published British standard or a published standard of the member state of the manufacturer, where no harmonised or international standard exists

Electrical equipment that doesn’t meet any of the accepted hierarchy of standards, perhaps because it is an innovative product, must still comply with the basic requirement to be safe.

Once you are satisfied that your product meets the requirements of the regulations, you should affix CE marking to the equipment. Or, where that’s not possible – to the packaging, the instruction sheet or the guarantee certificate.

You should also draw up a EC Declaration of Conformity (DoC) and compile technical documentation



Contextualisation: The Viking Era.

The era known as the Viking age lasted for more than 300 years, from the late 8th century to the late 11th century. The history of the Vikings is closely linked to their role as masters of the sea. They were feared as fierce and ruthless pirates. However this does not complete the story of the Vikings. They were also poets, lawmakers and great artists. Their superior ships explored unknown seas and they settled new lands.

Even if the Vikings were known abroad as ruthless pirates, at home they lived in an well-ordered society, based on laws and democracy. Viking society was divided into three classes: the elite with great economic power, free-holding farmers with the right to bear arms and attend the Ting, and slaves who had no rights. The Ting, or the general assembly, was responsible for maintaining law and order, and is by many considered to be one of the first true democratic organs in history. Learned men quoted the laws, and then lawsuits were heard. In simple cases everyone present, often hundreds of people, judged, and in important cases 12 chosen men judged. This is considered the beginning of the modern jury system.

The women held a strong position in Viking society and were responsible for the farm when their men were abroad. The symbol of the powerful housewife was her keys, hung from her gown. If her husband took the keys from his wife, she could divorce him instantly, and keep their shared property. No women were forced into marriages, unlike most other cultures at that time.

Vikings in the Viking Era
The Viking age produced rich, diversified art forms and crafts. A good blacksmith and a good poet would be equally acknowledged in Viking society. Crafts were most often produced by local craftsmen, but specialized masters also traveled to markets all over Northern Europe. A craftsman was often buried with his tools; they were important symbols of his status in death as well as in life. Viking craft was widely recognized as fine art all over the known world in the Viking age. The Viking craftsmen, carvers, painters and poets were responsible for most of our current knowledge about the Vikings.

Territories and voyages of the Vikings
It is well-known that the Vikings were great explorers and voyagers. However, one tends to overlook the extent of their voyages. From the countries today known as Scandinavia, the Vikings traveled south to England, Ireland, France and Spain, and settled there. Names of cities and the nature of the people are obvious signs of the significant role they played in these societies for almost three centuries. They also traveled to the Arabian world in northern Africa: Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. In fact, more than two million Arabian coins have been recovered in Viking burials all over Scandinavia, proving the extent of their exploring and trading. The Vikings traveled east to Russia and settled several places there, including the Baltic states of Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia. The name “Russia” actually originates from the Swedish (Rus = Vikings).


Reflection Entry: Learning to Know About Objects and Materiality.

My personal experience of Constellation this term has been a positive one, for a number of reasons. I am going to discuss the reasons why below.

Overcoming Academic Fears

Within this Constellation module, I was extremely anxious by the 4,000 word assignment and the additional 1,000 word PDP that accompanied the assignment. This was especially triggered by the weekly tasks of academic reading and writing – two aspects that I am not particularly strong or confident in. These fears led to distress until I confronted them in discussion with my study skills mentor Rachel. We discussed breaking down the tasks of academic writing and reading – and further discussed coping strategies to avoid information overload and panic attacks. In addition to this support in study skills, I sat down in a tutorial with Ashley early on and discussed my fears regarding the module outcomes.

As I progressed in the study group, I found myself starting to overcome social anxiety by starting to participate during the lectures, pitching in if only once. This built up to the point where I would start to try answer questions and always speak up about the recap of the week before. My confidence started to grow in these five hour lectures and in the end, you wouldn’t be able to shut me up! Which was a massive difference from the first session where I perked up and said two words and went into a panic attack. I am extremely happy with my progression within this module.

Through the weekly tasks Ashley set on academic writing and reading, I learned how to break down sections of essay writing and how to skim-read content in academic sources for what I am researching. Because of these tasks, I learned to develop better essay structure, referencing and content related research. I have overcome my academic fears in this module and I am not so distressed now about my dissertation proposal which is coming up next term, as I have tackled the 4,000 word assignment with more ease than I thought I would. I am now well over 3,000 words and my 1,000 PDP is also in progress. I am already feeling confident when writing and researching for my essay.

Opening Horizons

Through the intensive 5-hour lectures, I have started to broaden my mindset and develop a more thorough understanding of theory. I am still struggling to understand philosophy, but I can now read content and break down theories and learn to understand them, which is not what I was capable of doing before I engaged with my Learning to Know About Objects and Materiality study group. Because of this newfound knowledge, I have an expansive perspective on my work – I am now capable of applying theory to my practice; particularly the theory of sign in the Semiotics theory.

Through my subject matter for my essay, I chose to develop an extensive understanding on Semiotics and decided to apply them to my BAMS medals in my Subject module. I now understand the cultural and social connotations that different artefacts possess, as well as consumerism, monetary exchange values and the symbolic meaning of an artefact or material object.

Disobedient Objects: Day 3 & 4.

Tuesday: We had a 20-30 minute morning lecture with Paul, contextualising disobedient objects in the form of weaponry. This was interesting because it demonstrated how people in society will try to push or break boundaries, particularly those regulating to gun laws or weaponry. I found it fascinating and highly scary that someone is capable of 3D printing a working gun that could be dispensed to anyone at any given time!

After the morning lecture, Paul was doing tutorials to discuss people’s ideas and concepts for the project. I unfortunately had to go home due to a migraine which restricted my participation, however I did email Paul my idea and concept and he seemed to like my idea.

Thursday: In the morning, we had an Arduino session with Aidan and was learning how to rig up motors which involved more soldering and physical tasks. I found this beneficial because I learned more about what an Arduino could do and what I could potentially use, moving forwards.

In the afternoon, I went back to the Maker’s space to experiment and continue with prototypes. I intend to start building the main structures for my ideas next week and to discuss further with Aidan what I want to do in terms of Arduino now I’ve had time to learn a few things and adapt it to my concept.

Disobedient Objects: Day 1 & 2.

Field Days and Schedule

As an introduction into Disobedient Objects, we had a briefing with Paul Granjon on what disobedient objects are and how we may go about developing our own concepts to build within this field project.

We were given a morning task where we had to work in groups of 3-5, on creating something from four of the options we were given. I chose to work on the stupidest app and so we worked on the concept of an app controlled, automatic toothbrush that is attached to the wall.

After lunch, we were given the task to adhock a catapult together, sourcing out our own materials and resources to build it – the only thing provided was rubber bands!! This was a fun task, and I thoroughly enjoyed the adhocksim effect, which I never thought of applying to my work before. I outsourced my material from the wood off-cuts bin downstairs in the wood department and found tacs and nails and pins from soft modelling. I borrowed a hammer from Martin’s workshop in the Maker space and hijacked a spoon from Atrium cafe.

This task was a lot of fun and I was extremely pleased with how well and sturdy my catapult was, considering it was created from random off-cuts of wood from the wood department downstairs. I was even more pleased when I found out that the mechanics did in fact work.

We were given an hour and 30 minutes to complete this task by and when everyone returned to the FabLab, Paul took everyone out into the main reception corridor for a test run, to see whose catapult was the most efficient at throwing in distance.

catapult 8

In today’s session, we had an introduction (or in my case, a refresher) into Arduino software, and the soldering and programming of neopixel lights (these are familiar to me as they were used in my light project for my sensory toy last year).

This was a refresher session for me, and found it fairly beneficial as I could not remember certain aspects when it came to the soldering or setting up the arduino, but I found the programming the easy part as I could remember aspects of it from last year’s project.

In the afternoon, we had a seminar with Jon Pigott, and I found this beneficial. He spoke about disobedient objects to further our knowledge and infuse inspiration for our own concepts for this project brief. One of the things he spoke about influenced me and how I want to take this project further, which was something called “The Way In Which Things Go” by Peter Fischli and David Weiss. It was a series of objects that caused chain reactions and I found myself wanting to develop something further with this idea and the idea of adhockism.


Another person provided by Jon’s seminar also inspired me.


BAMS: A Timeline of Progression: Bronze Pour & Its After-Effects with the Additional Resin Medal Touch-ups.

Following on from the wax burn out in the foundry, my molochite shells were heavier than they previously were and didn’t feel so fragile to touch. I wasn’t sure what to expect in terms of the weight of the process once the wax was melted out, but it was still quite heavy.

The introduction into bronze pouring in the foundry was interesting, because it taught me how to set up for a bronze pour, and the three positions needed to proceed with a pour.

The positions were;

1) the main pourer – this person is responsible for controlling the crucible;
2) the deadman – this person is responsible for holding the other end of the jaws for the crucible, and offer extra weight support and nothing else – this was my role; and
3) the dossiere – this role is possibly the most important of all as this person is responsible for clearing debris and rubbish from the crucible, providing a nice clean bronze pour.

(Video courtesy of Roxanne).

I found the experience of partaking in the bronze pour to be an exhausting one – the protective gear we had to wear was thick, uncomfortable leather with gloves that were far too big for my hands and really cool space boots (I liked the space boots). I understand why we had to wear the protective clothing, but it didn’t really help prevent overheating or heat exhaustion, and I found the clothing was restrictive, as I couldn’t bend down very far which resulted with me bending with my back when lowering the crucible than with my knees.

bronze pour 5

Unfortunately the fast pour into my shell caused shock and ripped through the shell casing, which let air into my mould and this caused some warping throughout the rest of my bronze pour.

After the bronze pour, we had an induction into the grinders and machine operated saws to remove the excess bronze tree form, such as the runners and main body. I personally didn’t enjoy the method as I found the excess machinery’s noise caused headaches (mind you, there was about 4 of us doing it all at once so possibly not as bad when alone), but I also found the speed of the machine tools made me panic. I will use them again though, as it defeats using a hand axe-saw to try cut into the metal form as the hand axe-saws took about 45 minutes to cut through one runner.

My medals still need work – they need fixing up from the warping issue with welding and I also need to start considering pattination and further developing my design as I am currently unhappy with how it is perceived.

I casted another medal in resin and spoke to Martin about using a dremel to work into them and polish them up. This produced a more metallic finish, than which the resin originally appeared plastic and not what I was expecting it to be. I’m happier with these but I also used lino cutters to work into the medals more, to develop deeper cuts and ridges. I’ve decided I am going to work into these resin ones more for Craft in the Bay.

BAMS: Reflective Journal Entry.

During the BAMS brief in Subject, I have learned to develop a number of new processes to create a medal.

As I did not know the full process of making a bronze medal, it came as a surprise to understand the time and multiple aspects of the process it takes to complete a minimum set of medals. Obviously it is not the material that is costly but the days of process that creates the high cost of a bronze medal.
As I am just at the beginning stages of designing and learning about process and costs, it is better to concentrate my outcomes in other less costly process based materials. For example: Pewter and Resin.


Being a short process with a quick outcome was something I enjoyed and it did not involve waiting for kilns or burn outs. This process excited me and fuelled my creativity to continue working into the materiality after the initial outcome of the medal was produced. I found the tidying process of my pewter medals therapeutic because it soothed the tension and stress with the way the tools glided over the material. The time consumed from designing in pewter is after the fact when the medal has come out of the mould, and it is working into the actual metal itself. By sanding, filing and polishing. To further my design in Pewter, I am going to experiment with mark making into the medal itself.


This material was an unknown factor to me in actually being able to create a medal from. This is a material I have never experimented with, especially with adding metallic powder to create a possible bronze finish. This slight touch of alchemy has opened up other possibilities to experiment with metallic powders and materials. The quickest outcome from a process came from the resin cast. At the present time, I have only produced one medal from this process but the tools and outcome have yet to be manifest. Looking at the colouration on the medal at this present moment, it does appear possible that a bronze/metallic outcome is quite achievable.

As far as I am concerned, this is early days in taking on new processes and new ideas to develop in such a short period, I believe that if this part of subject was given more time, I personally would have enjoyed developing and researching more background knowledge for my design. This rushed, short programme has had a negative impact on what I thought initially I would thoroughly have enjoyed. Even so, this negativity in this part of term will not completely deter me from progressing when I can work at my own pace. Looking back in retrospect, I prefer to work with materials that react on a faster basis than that of the bronze process.

To develop my designs and possibly find a direction for the medals I produce, I was considering designing commemorative astronomical and space travel events and possibly create an outlet for a market on a webpage. i.e. Etsy perhaps.